Understanding the Wholly and Exclusively Principle for Corporation Tax
A business’s expenses are not always eligible to be deducted from the company’s total income when filing taxes. Only costs related to the business’s running and not for any other purpose are allowed as deductions. The rules for determining what costs are eligible for deductions can be complicated and have been tested in court cases over time.
The Basic Principles
The wholly and exclusively test requires that an expense be solely for the trade. It must not have any other purpose than that of the business. If an expense is found to meet this test, it can be used to reduce the company’s taxable profits, reducing the corporation tax they would otherwise have to pay. This could include wages, professional fees, repairs and maintenance, insurance, and office-related expenses.
It is important to consider whether the expenditure is necessary to conduct the business activities. Has the cost been incurred to further the aims of the business? If so, it can be considered wholly and exclusively for the trade.
- Intrinsic Duality
No tax relief is allowed for expenses that cannot be specifically and solely used for trading. Even if the cost is necessary for the business, it is not eligible for deduction if the purpose is not completely and exclusively for the trade. This applies to expenses that are not distinct from personal or mixed-use. These could include everyday clothing, housing, medical bills, certain training fees, or legal fees for defending oneself against a criminal charge.
- Incidental Benefit
A business might incur an expense that provides a benefit unrelated to its trade. Even though the business receives a benefit, the cost is still considered wholly and exclusively for the trade. For example, a director may travel to Italy for business, but they may also enjoy the sights and weather of the country. These additional benefits don’t take away from the fact that the original cost was for the benefit of the trade.
- Dual Purpose Expenditure
If a business expense has multiple purposes, only the part used solely for business reasons can be used as a deduction. Any portion used for non-business purposes cannot be used as a deduction. However, it is possible to split the expense into its various parts and only take a deduction for the portion that is related to business.
Common Wholly and Exclusively Expenses
Here are common expenses under the wholly and exclusively principle:
- Legal and Professional Fees
Expenses related to running a business related to making money, such as collecting debts, dealing with employment issues, and preparing accounts, are eligible to be deducted from taxable income. However, expenses related to buying or investing in something, such as legal fees, cannot be deducted.
- Repairs and Maintenance
General expenses related to fixing or maintaining something are considered allowable as a tax deduction. However, any costs associated with improving something are not allowed as a deduction, even if these costs are eligible for a tax break.
- Travel and Subsistence
It can be challenging to decide if a travel expense is deductible if it appears to have both a business and personal component. To decide, the business-related portion of the expenditure must be clearly identified. Once established, the facts must be considered to determine whether a deduction can be claimed for the travel expense.
It is okay to pay for activities or events that entertain staff, but expenses related to entertaining clients or other people outside the organization are not allowed as tax deductions.
- Donations and Subscriptions
Donations to non-profit organizations can be used as a tax deduction if they are related to the business. However, donations to political campaigns are not allowed for tax deductions.
Understanding the wholly and exclusively principle for corporation tax is essential for any business. This principle ensures that only relevant, necessary, and reasonable expenditures can be deducted from taxable profits. As such, businesses must be aware of the various types of allowable expenses and income and assets that can be excluded from corporation tax. By knowing and understanding this principle, businesses can ensure that they comply with corporation tax legislation and benefit from the tax reliefs available.
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